Number of Cylinders: 4
Warranty: Vehicle does NOT have an existing warranty
Drive Type: 2
Olathe, Kansas, United States
The body is stellar, as straight as an arrow, and the paint finish is literally a show-quality mirror on all sides. Even the underside of the Bus was sprayed in Sealing Wax Red and it is literally prettier than brand new on the top side and underside as well. The interior is equally as gorgeous with great attention to detail in both parts and materials. The engine was fully rebuilt and detailed. This Bus truly has it all, beauty, uniqueness, accuracy, rarity, and significance beyond what you will typically see on the public market.
The case of Dupont and Honeywell's refrigerant R-1234yf is doing the exact opposite of keeping things cool. The two chemical companies have spent years and hundreds of millions of dollars developing R-1234yf to replace R-134a, the new refrigerant shown to be 99.7-percent kinder to the environment than the one it is meant to succeed. Part of that development has been years of testing by governments, outside safety agencies and automakers to approve the chemical for use in cars. It passed the protocols necessary for the European Union to declare that new and significantly revised cars from 2013 onward needed to use R-1234yf, and mandated that every car as of 2017 must use it.
Enter Daimler AG. The automaker created a head-on collision test with a B-Class at their Sindelfingen test track that would lead to the pressurized refrigerant being sprayed on the engine. The result in 20 out of 20 test was that the refrigerant burst into flames as soon as it hit the hot engine, while Daimler says that R-134a does not catch fire in the same test. Another unexpected result of the R-1234yf test was the release of hydrogen flouride, a chemical far more deadly to humans than hydrogen cyanide, emitted in such amounts that it that turned the windshield white as it began to eat into the glass.
Said a Daimler engineer in a Reuters piece, "It was scarcely believable. The most complicated lab tests conducted using the most sensitive measuring instruments around found nothing and all we do is drive a car around a couple of times, open a tiny hole in the refrigerant line and the next thing you know the car is on fire." So Daimler said it wouldn't use the refrigerant, and it recalled the cars it had already shipped with R-1234yf.
In 2007, the European Union mandated fleet average CO2 emissions of 158.7 g/km. For 2015, that figure will drop to 130 g/km, and the target for 2020 is an ambitions 95 g/km. Thanks to some German politicking, that target will be phased in from 2020 to 2024, but it will still apply to 80 percent of passenger cars in that first year. In US miles per gallon, that's the equivalent of going from about 35 mpg to 42 mpg to 57 mpg. The current Volkswagen Golf is rated from 85 g/km of CO2 to 190 g/km depending on model - and zero for the e-Golf, so for the next-generation MkVIII hatch due in 2019, to meet the goal, Volkswagen engineers will need to introduce a bunch of new tricks. According to a report in Autocar, VW be mining its hyper-efficient XL1 for some of them.
Predictions for the next Golf include a variable-compression engine, an electric flywheel and an electric turbo, along with taking greater advantage of coasting. Volkswagen could be getting help from Audi with the electric turbo and variable-compression engine and electric turbo, with Audi already having shown off the former and brand technical boss Ulrich Hackenberg confirming the VW Group is working on the latter. It's possible the flywheel system could also have the mark of The Four Rings: Autocar mentions a British system that Volvo is testing, but the R18 e-tron Quattro racer has been using one for years.
The need for such features is because the company won't be able to net enough future gains from just aerodynamic improvements and advanced materials. As price will be a factor (the regulations are expected to "add hundreds of euros to the cost of building a car"), adding much more aluminum or carbon fiber is an unlikely option. We're told the next generation won't be longer or wider than the current car, and being Europe's most popular model, VW doesn't want to make a big bet on futuristic aero, but the report says the MkVIII will "likely" have "the most aerodynamic treatment yet seen on a production vehicle," the area where lessons learned from the XL1 will truly be seen.
Volkswagen's Detroit Auto Show presence is big on utility this year, with the CrossBlue three-row concept vehicle occupying the lion's share of the limelight, both literally and figuratively. But that isn't stopping Volkswagen from lavishing attention on its already established crossover and sport utility vehicles with new R-Line derivatives. The Tiguan and its big brother Touareg are getting a host of look-faster items to increase their sporting appeal.
On the outside, the Tiguan R-Line receives handsome 19-inch alloys peering out from beneath fender extensions, premium lighting (bi-Xenon headlamps with LED daytime running lamps), along with matching side skirts and a liftgate spoiler. On the inside, sportier accommodations include aluminum trim and a flat-bottom steering wheel with paddle shifters. As with other R-Line models, there are no powertrain modifications to go with the more aggressive visuals (that being the province of R standalone performance models like the R32), though the suspension has been firmed up an unspecified amount. The Tiguan R-Line will be available in front- or all-wheel drive configuration.